Linda Lee Graham

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Author from United States

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The Race to White in the 18th-Century West Indies

Eleven Shades of Brown Free Women of Color ~ Agostino Brunias In the 1780s, French traveler Moreau de St. Méry categorized eleven different racial combinations in the French-controlled Saint-Domingue. Considering the interracial mingling over a span of several generations, he also sub-categorized more than a hundred variations in an expansive table.1 Moreau’s work…

Outwitting a Duppy

© Can Stock Photo Inc. /[Jag_cz]Torchlight flickered over the silent dark faces of those gathered in the graveyard, and Rhiannon drew in a long, ragged breath, catching the scent of freshly turned dirt. Sliding from her horse, she clutched her amulet and crossed to the open grave. Craning forward, she…

As Rich as a Creole

In eighteenth-century Jamaica, a creole was a nonindigenous person born on the island, whether of European, African, or mixed descent. Those referenced in the expression “as rich as a creole,” however, were invariably of European descent. The phrase is a variant of the more familiar “as rich as Croesus,” implying…

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